Technical Notes and Application Studies

LT Industries is now Verum Analytics

New name, new developments, building on 40 years of analytical knowledge.

Fuels and Refining

Measurement of Kerosene and Diesel Fuel Properties with NIR – Request Additional Information

“Quality measurement of fuels involves measurement of key properties such as Cloud Point, Distillation points, Aromatics, Density and Cetane Number. ASTM tests are the standard methods for measuring these properties; however they are time and resource intensive. A rapid, accurate method for analyzing many samples quickly is highly desired. In this study, a ParaFuel analyzer was used to measure various properties of kerosene and related fuels (diesel, jet fuel, etc). This method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. The results indicate an excellent application of LT-NIR technology and a strong potential for online measurements. Laboratory and online applications allow for better control of quality monitoring throughout the refining process.”

Measurements included determination of Cetane number, Cloud Point, Density, T10, T50, T90 T End, Aromatics, BTU/lb, and Viscosity.   Note that all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Online Measurement of Gasoline Properties – Request Additional Information

“Production of petroleum products such as reformulation of gasoline fuels requires close monitoring of a number of different parameters, such as Octane Number, RVP, Aromatics, Olefins, Benzene, etc. In order to assure optimum yield and throughput, these parameters have to be monitored continuously and accurately. Online measurement of these properties has several advantages: instantaneous results, reduced lab time, and control-loop schemes to control blending based on real time property measurements. In this study, hydrocarbon classes such as Octane levels (RON and MON), individual species and physical properties were measured online to control gasoline blending. This real time control helped the plant generate significant savings through reduced Octane giveaway and improved product quality.”

Additional measurements included determination of RON, MON, Saturates, Ethanol, Oxygen, Density and Temporary Viscosity Loss (TVL).  Note that all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Measurement of Gasoline Quality Properties – Request Additional Information

This study demonstrates the ability of ParaFuel Fuel Analyzer to measure a full range of gasoline quality properties.  Calibrations were developed and the measurement performance for the properties reported.  Measurements included in the report are determination of RON, MON, PON (R+M/2), Olefins, DVPE, API Gravity, and boiling point/boiling range profile.  Note that all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Determination of Key Quality Parameters in Gas Oil – Request Additional Information

The ParaFuel was used for measuring key quality parameters in Gas Oil for fast and accurate laboratory quality testing.  Used for determination of Flash Point, Color, Density, Viscosity, Water, TAN, and Boiling Point profile, the ParaFuel is able to reduce testing workload by hours.  Tests are fast, non-destructive, use no reagents or chemicals, and have no per measurement costs.  The ParaFuel analyzer determines all properties in a single test. 
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Determination of Flashpoint and Naphthalene in Jet Fuel – Request Additional Information

The report demonstrates the ability of Verum Analytics’ ParaFuel Analyzer to measure the properties of Naphthalene and Flash Point in Jet Fuel.  Measurements are correlated to ASTM D1840, D7215-16, D56, and D3828.  The technique is non-destructive and easily applied as a fast laboratory method or for in-process/online monitoring.  Online monitoring of Jet Fuel allows for real-time process control and dramatic improvements in product stability and cost reduction. 
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Determination of Fuel Degradation – Request Additional Information

In this unique application the ParaFuel measured quality parameters of fuel over time as it was processed through various engine hardware.  Testing is used to determine the effect and efficiency of the engine components based on its effect on the fuel.  The ParaFuel performed analysis of boiling point profile, Residue, Loss, Evap points, Density, Ethanol, DVPE, Viscosity and Water content. Real time measurement was required to track fuel degradation characteristics.  Laboratory testing was too slow and costly.  However, with the ParaFuel analyzer, one probe, one analysis, all properties are determined in seconds.
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Determination of Xylene Isomers – Request Additional Information

“Xylenes are a valuable chemical commodity due to their use as precursor chemicals for polymer production. The p- isomer is the most valuable isomer for this purpose. Isomerization operations maximize p-xylene production with respect to the o- and m- isomers.  In this study, the ParaFuel Analyzer is used to measure Xylene Isomers. It is found that the Isomers are easily measured by LT-NIR. The measurement may be done as a laboratory validation method for processes or incoming chemicals or may be implemented online for real-time analysis and control.”

Concentrations of Isomers p-xylene, o-xylene, and m-xylene were determined with high accuracy over ranges of 0-100%, 0-66%, 0-100% respectively. 
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Crude, Oil Sands, and Lubrication Oils

Measurement of Asphaltene Precipitation – Request Additional Information

“Asphaltene precipitation is an expensive problem for Oil Producers, Transporters and Refiners. Precipitation can be induced via solvent addition, changes in temperature, pressure, or blending of crudes. Damage to pipes, pumps, heat exchangers and other equipment can be extremely costly due to replacement and production stoppages. The ParaFuel Analyzer from Verum Analytics can be used to measure the Asphaltene Precipitation point with an easier and more accurate method than laboratory tests. In this study, the ParaFuel Analyzer is used to measure Asphaltene precipitation under the presence of various solvents. The measurement is automatic and provides results instantaneously.”
Visit our Asphaltene Precipitation applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Online Monitoring of Crude Oil at Pipeline Injection Sites – Request Additional Information

Crude Oil quality was tested in-line and in real time at multiple injection sites along a pipeline.  Crude quality in the pipeline was often irregular causing disruptions at the termination point.  By monitoring quality parameters at each injection point, pipeline quality was stabilized.  The ParaFuel Crude Oil Analyzer was used for the determination of API Gravity, Total Acid Number (TAN), Water, Solids, and Sulfur content in the crude oil allowing for better pipeline feed control and stabilization of crude properties at the refinery.
Visit our Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Solids and Methanol in Crude Oil – Request Additional Information

“Crude Oil is a broad term applied to hundreds of extracted hydrocarbons, each with their own unique properties. Knowing these properties is critical as the product moves from the well to the refinery. Optimization of crude transport, distillation and processing relies on knowing the key properties of this substance. In this study, a ParaFuel Crude Oil analyzer was used to measure crudes for Solids and percent Methanol. The ParaFuel’s quick and accurate methanol determination makes it an ideal choice for both laboratory and process analysis.”

“The results of this study indicate that the LT-NIR technique is ideally suited to monitor crude oil properties such as solids and methanol. The ParaFuel can measure concentrations to low levels with high accuracy and precision. The LT-NIR analysis takes only a few seconds and” can be equipped “with process probes and the ability to monitor multiple (up to 20) points with a single analyzer.”
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Measurement of Crude Oil Properties – Request Additional Information

“Crude Oil is a broad term applied to hundreds of extracted hydrocarbons, each with their own unique properties. Knowing these properties is critical as the product moves from the well to the refinery. Optimization of crude transport, distillation and processing relies on knowing the key properties of this substance. This analysis is useful for such areas as: Incoming Crude Identification, Supplier Validation, Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) Optimization, Crude Sweetening, Preventing Asphaltene Deposition and Crude Blending. In this study, a ParaFuel Crude Oil analyzer was used to determine a wide array of quality properties in crude oil. The ParaFuel’s quick and accurate analysis makes it an ideal choice for both laboratory and process analysis.”

Measurements included determination of API Gravity, Sulfur Content, Acid Number, C1-C5, Boil Range/Boiling Point Profile, RVPE, Viscosity, Pour Point, and Water Content.  Note that all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
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Measurement of Crude Oil Properties (2) – Request Additional Information

“Crude Oil is a broad term applied to hundreds of extracted hydrocarbons, each with their own unique properties. Knowing these properties is critical as the product moves from the well to the refinery. Optimization of crude transport, distillation and processing relies on knowing the key properties of this substance. This analysis is useful for such areas as: Incoming Crude Identification, Supplier Validation, Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) Optimization, Crude Sweetening, Preventing Asphaltene Deposition and Crude Blending. In this study, a ParaFuel Crude Oil analyzer was used to determine a wide array of quality properties in crude oil. The ParaFuel’s quick and accurate analysis makes it an ideal choice for both laboratory and process analysis.”

Measurements in this report include determination of Density, CCR, Molecular Weight, Saturates, Boil Aromatics, Resins, Asphaltenes, H/C Ratio (Hydrogen/Carbon Ratio), Nitrogen, and Sulfur Content.  Note that all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
Visit our Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

 

Lubrication and Metalworking Oil Measurement – Request Additional Information

“Lubrication oils are used in nearly all heavy industries. Measuring their properties is a high value measurement for both producers and end users. Producers wish to check that their oils meet specifications, while consumers may wish to measure contaminant levels so that they can effectively use and reuse oils. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters for lube oil quality. In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the viscosity of lube oils from a major manufacturer and oil additives and contaminants at an end user facility. The same analyzer made in-process measurements in an oil recycling operation. In all cases, the Analyzer performed the required measurements successfully.”

Measurements in this report include determination of Gum, Viscosity, Base Oil%, Gear Oil%, additives, concentration of various hydraulic oils, and additives such as Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Methylene Chloride, and others.
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Methanol in Crude (MIC) Monitor – Request Additional Information

In this application very low levels of methanol were measured in crude oil.  Methanol is often used to enhance flow characteristics for various piping and transporting requirements.  The level of methanol must remain low or the quality and value of the crude oil is lower.  In other applications methanol is added to mitigate freezing in pipelines during transportation.  In these and other applications the methanol content must be monitored and controlled.  Real time online analysis offers the best solution.  Controls can be real time and pipeline “contamination” costs can be greatly reduced with real time monitoring of Methanol and other quality parameters.
Visit our Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Bitumen and Water in Oil Sands – Request Additional Information

“The mining of oil sands has steadily increased over the years as rising oil prices have lead to so-called “nonconventional” plays becoming profitable. Bitumen in oil sands is either blended with crudes or upgraded. However, the composition of oil sands varies from formation to formation, making profitability assessments challenging. Furthermore, processing oil sands required accurate compositional information. Therefore a fast, simple, but accurate measurement method of bitumen, water and solids in oil sands is highly desirable. In this study, several oil sands samples were analyzed by a ParaFuel Crude Oil Analyzer.”
Visit our Bitumen in Oil Sands applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

Measurement of Soap in Petroleum Lubricants – Request Additional Information

“In this study, LT-NIR was used to monitor soap levels in petroleum based lubricants. Soap levels are a key to lubricant quality and impart characteristics such as viscosity. This study illustrates the viability of NIR analysis for their measurement”
Visit our Fuels and Crude Oil applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

BioFuels

Biodiesel Transesterification Reaction – Request Additional Information

“The transesterification reaction is the heart of a biodiesel production process. In this step,
triglycerides are reacted with methanol to produce fatty acids and glycerol. To optimize the product, reactor conditions and reactant concentrations may need to be adjusted. This study outlines the use of a ParaFuel Biodiesel Analyzer monitoring transesterification directly in the reactor. Modbus connectivity to the process controller (DCS) real time process control is achieved.”
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Biodiesel Transesterification Reaction (2) – Request Additional Information

“In the following study a ParaFuel Analyzer was used in-process at a transesterification reaction. This study ran for the course of over 3 months during which a large amount of data was collected, allowing for robust calibrations. The percentage of Mono-glyceride, Di-gyceride, and Tri-glycerides, Total Bound Glycerin (TBG), and Methanol in in-process BioDiesel. were monitored continuously as the reactor ran.” ‘The results of this study indicate that the LT-NIR technique is ideally suited to monitor the biodiesel transesterification process. The ParaFuel can measure concentrations of Mono-glycerin, Di-glycerin, and Tri-glycerin, allowing for process control and optimization in real time. Additional in-process measurement solutions include monitoring methanol recovery and testing incoming feed-stock for Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and moisture.”  
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Biodiesel ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 Properties – Request Additional Information

“Producing quality biodiesel that conforms to either ASTM D6751 or EN 14214 used to mean
either conducting long laboratory tests that required a high degree of laboratory skill or
outsourcing to a third party lab which is both costly and time consuming. In this study, finished
biodiesel was analyzed for several ASTM properties including Free Glycerin, Acid Number,
Cloud Point, Water and Methanol. The ParaFuel Biodiesel Analyzer demonstrates excellent
correlation to the ASTM testing methods. Furthermore its operation requires no special
laboratory skills and rapidly measures multiple quality parameters.”  
Visit our BioFuels applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

FAME Concentration in Biodiesel Blends – Request Additional Information

“The ParaFuel analyzer can measure the ratio of biodiesel in all ranges of interest to both
manufacturers and blending operations. It offers dramatic improvements in both speed and
simplicity to this otherwise complicated and time consuming measurement. The LTNIR
analysis takes only a few seconds and can be performed by personnel with no laboratory
experience or performed online and in-process.”  
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Online Monitoring of Complete Biodiesel Process – Request Additional Information

“The results of this report indicate that the ParaFuel Biodiesel Analyzer is well suited for online measurement throughout the biodiesel production process.”  The study demonstrates measurements of feed-stock (FFA and Moisture), in process biodiesel (FFA, Togal Bound Glycerin), finished B100 (FFA, Moisture, Total Bound Glycerin, Mono Glycerin) and Glycerin recover (Methanol).  Subsequent measurements included methanol recover, pretreatment, and more.
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Measurements in Cellulosic Ethanol Production – Request Additional Information

“In recent years, interest in deriving ethanol from cellulosic biomass has grown due to the lower material cost and greater sustainability. Demand for ethanol biofuel is growing due to both increased demand for alternative fuels and government regulations. Rapid, Real time analysis provided by LT-NIR can greatly benefit bot Research and Development and large scale production. In this study, LT-NIR is shown to be a useful tool in Cellulosic Ethanol production, measuring samples from the
Fermentation, Hydrolysis and Final Product stages..”

The study reports on measurements taken throughout the cellulosic ethanol production process, including Fermentation, Hydrolysis, and Final product quality.  Properties measured include pH, Glucose, Xylose, Ethanol, Lactic and Acetic acid, Solids, Xylan, Moisture and Ethanol Purity.
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Algae Analysis for Biofuel Oil Production – Request Additional Information

“The production of Algae, in order to ensure optimum yield and improved product quality,
requires close monitoring of several quality control parameters. Lipid production in particular
can vary depending on the growth parameters of the algae. The methods used to quantify
total algae concentration are time-consuming and may also be misleading, so faster and
simpler methods for measuring total algae content would be beneficial in a variety of
applications. This study demonstrates the use of near infra-red (NIR) analysis to monitor the
algae content in water based samples quickly and easily.”

“The results of this study indicate that the LT-NIR technique is ideally suited for the
determination of % Algae. It offers dramatic improvements in both speed and simplicity to
this otherwise complicated and time consuming measurement. The LTNIR analysis takes
only a few seconds and can be performed by personnel with no laboratory experience or
performed online and in-process.”
Visit our BioFuels applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

 

BioPharma/Pharmaceutical

In Situ Monitoring of Cell Culture Bioreactions – Request Additional Information

“Monitoring Glucose, Acetate, and other metabolites in real time offers benefits of process control and research and process optimization information.  Without the need of sample extraction, using SIP, CIP, and Autoclavable probes, measurements are made in situ continuously.  In this study, a wide range of Amino Acids are also measured, all in a single analysis (Theonine, Asparginine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, and others).  The study demonstrates the IsoPharm’s ability to measure metabolic consitutents and amino acid profiles.”
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In Situ Monitoring of Fermentation Bioreactions – Request Additional Information

“Bio-Processes such as Bacterial and Yeast fermentation are used for manufacturing high cost and high volume pharmaceutical and dietary supplement products.  Quality parameters are frequently monitored using time consuming off line laboratory methods.  These lab methods are too slow to allow for effective process control and optimizing of yields or for effective characterization of the process.  Real time in situ measurements using the IsoPharm fermentation monitor is used to measure full range of key metabolites and process indicators.  The results integrated into the process controller for feed back control of glucose feed and other process variables.  Monitoring Glucose, Dry Cell Weight, OD, Ethanol, Ammonium and other metabolites in real time offers benefits of process control and optimization information.  A range of in process properties measurements are demonstrated.” 
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Soy Peptone Qualification – Request Additional Information

Soy Peptones represent a common nutrient.  “The results of this study indicate that LT‐NIR is well suited for the accurate identification of Soy Peptone and Pre‐Mixed Mineral Powders. It is also able to qualify incoming products and identify when a sample does not fit the established acceptable library.”  Almost instantaneous analysis is used to qualify product before starting bioreactors.  Knowledge of the Soy Peptone efficiency insures batches are set up for optimum performance and no batches are lost to bad product.
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Polymorphic Phase Determination – Request Additional Information

“Many pharmaceutical compounds exhibit polymorphism, or the ability to have multiple structures. These are important both from a functional and legal standpoint: Different crystal phases can have different physical properties such as solubility. Additionally, drug patents may be for only one particular phase. Consequently, the ability to discriminate between different polymorphs is a high-value measurement for pharmaceutical manufacturers. In this study, the ability of LT-NIR to distinguish between two polymorphs of Sertaline HCL is demonstrated. The rapid, nondestructive measurement of chemical bonds allows for easy discrimination as crystalline structure differences influence NIR spectra.”
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Pharmaceutical Raw Material ID – Request Additional Information

“Raw Material Identification is a critical component of quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. A well executed raw material testing program reduces waste and out-of-spec product and identifies counterfeits as well as helps meet the requirements of GMP facilities. However, traditional test methods such as chromatography can take hours and require sample preparation and trained chemists. LT-NIR analysis offers several advantages in materials identification and qualification. It is rapid, non-destructive and day-to-day testing can be carried out by unskilled personnel due to the simple operating procedure. In this LT-NIR is used to identify pharmaceutical raw materials. Furthermore, the ability of LT-NIR to detect material properties is also illustrated.”
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API Powder Composition – Request Additional Information

“In the pharmaceutical industry, quality testing is critical to ensuring in-specification products. The ability to rapidly analyze powders for concentrations of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API’s), and other constituents can improve efficiency of testing and reduce reject batches. In this study, the applicability of LT-NIR to pharmaceutical powder analysis was studied. LT-NIR analysis offers several advantages in materials identification and qualification. It is rapid, non-destructive and day-to-day testing can be carried out by unskilled personnel due to the simple operating procedure. In this study, LT-NIR is used to develop quantitative calibrations on powder constituents including Amoxicillin and Acetaminophen .”
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Pulp and Paper

Determination of Kappa Number in Pulp Wood Fibers – Request Additional Information

Measuring Kappa number in pulp fibers is a critical piece of information for optimizing process conditions in the digester.  In this report, accurate analysis of Kappa Number in Pulp Wood Fibers is shown.  Measurements take only seconds and are non-destructive.  This replaces slower more complicated laboratory test methods that are prone to operator error and use expensive reagents.  The IsoChem Pulp and Paper analyzer uses no reagents, no sample pretreatment, and has no per measurement cost.   And it is easily used by any level of operator in the lab or in a control room.
Visit our Pulp & Paper applications page or contact us with your measurement requirements.

ClO2 Generator Process Monitoring – Request Additional Information

The report documents the successful measurement of key Chlorine Dioxide production process parameters.  The Chlorine generator process is especially sensitive to disruptions and reduced efficiency when chemistry is not in balance.  The IsoChem Pulp and Paper analyzer provides both a fast laboratory method and real-time online monitoring for optimizing process conditions.  Accurate determination of Acid Concentration, Chlorate Concentration, and Solids is provides in seconds, all with a single test.  Online analyzers are integrated with the process controller for real-time automated process control. 
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Various properties in Black, Green, and White Liquors – Request Additional Information

This TAPPI presentation recounts a wide range of properties analyzed with the IsoChem Pulp and Paper Analyzer.  Measured streams include Pulp, Black Liquor, Smelt, Green Liquor, White Liquor, and Lime.  Determination of many critical Kraft Pulping properties are demonstrated including Alkali (TTA, EA) ABC (NaOH, NaCO3, Na2S), Viscosity, Btu, Lignin, Sulphates, Carbonates, Causticizing Efficiency (CE), and others.
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Measurement of Moisture in Calcium Carbonate (Lime) – Request Additional Information

“In the Lime Re-burning process monitoring of moisture plays a very important role.  It can result in substantial fuel savings, less over-burning or under-burning, improved recausticizing operations, improved white liquor quality and many other process and efficiency parameters.  The Verum IsoChem Analyzer allows both quantitative and discriminate analysis of moisture in Lime as well as many other key measurements.” 
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Measurement of Calcium Carbonate in Kiln Output – Request Additional Information

Real Time monitoring of Kiln output and determination of % Calcium Carbonate allows for optimizing process conditions.  The Kiln process is a very high energy consumer, and reductions in processing times increases throughput and reduces energy consumption.  The report documents the successful measurement of Calcium Carbonate in the output material of a Pulp and Paper Kiln. 
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Polymer and Plastics

Acid Number in Polyester – Request Additional Information

“Polymer acidity is an important parameter to monitor, as excess acidity can lead to undesirable reactivity, due to increases in acidic end groups. A common measurement of acidity is an Acid Number test (ASTM D664 / D974 / D1534 / D3339 tests.) Acid Number measurement is defined as the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize 1 gram of substance, in this case polyester. These titration techniques are time-consuming and introduce human error into the measurement. Furthermore, it cannot be implemented online or in process. In this study, LT-NIR was used to determine acid number with a rapid, non-destructive, 30 second scan. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR for this measurement with strong correlation to the ASTM method.”
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Hydroxyl Number in PolyEthylene Glycol (PEG) – Request Additional Information

“Hydroxyl number is an important property monitored in the quality control of polyols such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Hydroxyl Value is a measure of free OH groups and therefore is an indicator of Molecular Weight and thus degree of polymerization. The traditional test (ASTM E1899 / D4274 / D1957 or similar) involves a titration that is time-consuming, and unable to be implemented online. Faster and simpler methods for measurement as well as a method that is easily implemented online would be beneficial in improving process controls. This study demonstrates the use of near-infrared (NIR) analysis to monitor the Hydroxyl Number in samples quickly and easily.”
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Acid and Hydroxyl Number in Polymers – Request Additional Information

“Hydroxyl number and Acid number are two critical properties monitored in the quality control of polyols. Traditionally, they are determined through wet chemistry titration methods. Faster and simpler methods for measuring these values as well as a method that is easily implemented online would be beneficial in improving process controls and efficiency. This study demonstrates the use of near-infrared (NIR) analysis to monitor the Acid Number and Hydroxyl Number in polyols quickly and easily.”
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Polymer Additives – UV Stabilizer and Antioxidants – Request Additional Information

“In the production of polymers, various chemical additives can be included to influence polymer properties. Two common categories are antioxidants and UV Stabilizers which are added to improve polymer durability. In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the additive levels of polymer pellets at room temperature with no sample preparation. The method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. Furthermore, this method can be applied in inline analysis (either of polymer melts or pellets) for real time monitoring and control.”
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Carbon Fiber Density Measurement – Request Additional Information

“Carbon fibers are an important component in composite materials often acting in reinforcement due to their very high strength to weight ratio. Density is an important parameter in carbon fiber production and as it provides a great deal of information about the extent of conversion and the properties of the end product. Therefore, a rapid, nondestructive measurement is desired, as is one that can be implement directly online. In this study, LT-NIR is investigated for both of these advantages.”
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NIR Study of Silicone Chemistry – Request Additional Information

“Silicones are polymers that include Silicon (Si) atoms with organic C, H, N, and O and other atoms. They vary widely in chemistry, composition, properties and usage. LT-NIR can be a useful technique for analyzing silicones. While Si is transparent to NIR radiation, the functional groups such as C-H, C=O, O-H, N-H, C=C-H, are NIR active. These functional groups give the silicones their special properties. The high resolution NIR analysis allows for PPM-level measurement of their concentrations. In this study, silicones were analyzed for levels of vinyl (-CH2=CH3) and Hydride (OH) concentrations. Results were quite positive, indicating a good application of the technology.”
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Polymer Viscosity Measurement – Request Additional Information

“Viscosity is an important parameter in polymer science. Knowing the intrinsic viscosity, one can gain insight into the properties of the polymer (molecular weight, etc.) In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the intrinsic viscosity of polymer pellets at room temperature with no sample preparation. Compared to melt viscosity or solution viscosity tests, the method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. Further application of this method can be in inline analysis (either of polymer melts or pellets.)”
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Inline Hot Melt Measurement at the Extruder in Polymer Production – Request Additional Information

“When implementing analytical instrumentation on the ends of melt extruders, robustness and low maintenance is required. The conditions of the sample are not conducive to many technologies and one must be selected that can withstand those conditions. One such technology is Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy. The LT-NIR IsoChem analyzer is easily applied to extrusion applications, with dramatic results. This allows for online real time analysis and improved process control.”
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Chemical, Acids, Various Applications

Inline Measurement of Adhesive mixing – Request Additional Information

“Adhesives and tapes are widely used in a variety of industrial manufacturing processes for Automotive, Construction, Electronics and Medical Industries in addition to many consumer uses. Industrial adhesive products are commonly manufactured by combining glue and a hardening agent. The ratio of the two components is critical to product quality and process control. Too much or too little agent will lead to an out-of spec product. In continuous production, quick detection of process upsets is essential to avoid product losses and thermal management. Therefore, inline measurement of this parameter is critical. In this study, LT-NIR technology is shown to provide in-situ, real-time measurements of glue to hardener mix ratio in a continuous production process. This allows for detection of mixing failure, or out-of-specification product.”
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Online Monitoring of Bromine Streams – Request Additional Information

In this application two phases of the Boric stream in a Boric recovery plant are monitored online and in real time.  The real time monitoring of the process allows for incoming (heavy) Boric characterization and outgoing (light) Boric quality to be monitored and controlled.  The online IsoChem analyzer measures continuously and provides immediate determination of a full range of stream properties.  Some of these are Boric, Total Carbon, Heptanoic, GLutaric, Adipic, Caprotic, and various diols.  All properties are provided in a single analysis and measurements are fully automated, continuous, require no reagents, and have no per-measurement costs.
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Passive Monitoring of Energetic Material Production – Request Additional Information

“Energetic Materials, used in pyrotechnic, explosives and related applications contain a large amount of chemical energy that can be released. The composition of such materials is an important property that should be frequently monitored. Incorrect formulation can lead to unpredictable or dangerous results. Further complicating testing are the sensitivity of these materials to heat, pressure and impacts. For these reasons, LT-NIR was investigated for monitoring such products. In this study, an IsoChem Thermal-NIR System with an extruder probe and an IR Camera was set up directly in process. The system continuously took measurements of product composition and temperature. These results were integrated into control systems to ensure safety in manufacturing these compounds.”
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Determination of % Diol in Diol/Aromatic Amines – Request Additional Information

The study reports that application of LT-NIR technique to the determination of % diol in a blend of long chain dials and aromatic amines.  The IsoChem analyzer provides fast and accurate results of diol concentration.  The measurement is equally well suited for fast laboratory analysis or online diol measurement for real-time process control
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OrganoChloride Monitoring with NIR – Request Additional Information

“OrganoChloride compounds are found throughout the chemical industry in a variety of applications often as precursor chemicals. Benzal Chloride, for instance, is a common precursor chemical for Benzaldehyde. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5Cl6) was previously used in the production of fertilizers, until it was deemed a pollutant. It is still used as a precursor chemical for flame retardant products. Knowledge of these chemical concentrations is critical to process monitoring and control as well as final product quality testing. Additionally, the composition of waste streams can be measured, which is useful for environmental studies. In this study, an IsoChem Analyzer was used to measure several liquid samples of C5Cl6, C5Cl8 and Benzal Chloride Levels. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR.”
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Determination of Polystyrene and Other Chemicals in Chemical Reaction – Request Additional Information

Inline monitoring of various chemical forms during the reaction allows for optimized process control.  Process involves the reaction of Chlorobenzene, Polystyrene, and other chemicals.  Measurements are made continuously and track conversion of reactants.  With real-time analysis process variables and feeds are controlled to maintain optimum conversion/reaction.  All key properties are made with a single fast analysis.
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Phosphate Production Analysis – Request Additional Information

“Wet process production of phosphate fertilizer involves treating rock phosphates (raw material) with acid to produce concentrated phosphoric acid as P2O5. Knowing the phosphate concentration is critical to fertilizer quality and knowledge of how the process is performing. In this study, several samples of wet phosphate were scanned with an IsoChem Analyzer to measure P2O5 and acid (H2SO4) levels. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR in this industry.”
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Liquid Fertilizer Nutrient Measurement – Request Additional Information

“Nutrient content in fertilizers is a critical measurement parameter as it affects both product quality and process efficiency.  However, testing the nutrient content of  fertilizer samples is slow and complex. For instance, phosphate is measured by titration or induction coupled plasma, the nitrogen is determined by the Kjehldahl method. LT-NIR can measure the same constituents in a single
30-second scan that required no sample treatment. In this study, several fertilizer samples were measured with LT-NIR.”

Measurements include determination of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Sulfur in liquid fertilizer.  All parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
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Semiconductor Wet Chemical Analysis – Request Additional Information

“In semiconductor wet processes chemical concentrations must be monitored to ensure effective use. Process NIR systems such as the Verum Analytics IsoChem can be used to measure the concentrations of acid and basic solutions such as the standard clean (SC-1 and SC-2) solutions. Online monitoring of acid baths and chemical recycling operations leads to more efficient processes, less industrial waste and great cost savings, all while keeping solutions within required specifications. In this study, solutions from a two major semiconductor manufacturers were analyzed with an LT-NIR IsoChem Spectrometer to determine their concentrations.”

Measurements reported include determination of HNO3, HF, H2SO4, HCL, H2O2, and NH4OH.  Measurements of all parameters are determined with a single, fast, non-destructive analysis.
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Epoxy Resin Impregnated Fiber Glass Sheet – Request Additional Information

The report details the successful measurement of various Epoxy Resin coating weight applied on different types of fiberglass sheet.  Measurements are made using a reflectance probe positioned over a moving sheet.  The fiberglass sheets are coated with one of a selection of resins and the measurement is made as the product moves beneath the probe.  Measurements take under a minute and average out the coating weight of a predetermine amount of product.  This allows for stable process analysis and control.  Measurements made at different locations across the material help to determine application consistency.
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Food, Beverage, Fragrance, and Spices

Food Quality Parameters in Mayonnaise – Request Additional Information

“Food quality parameters such as Fat, Moisture, pH, Salt, and Acid are critical to ensuring product falls in specifications. In the process of producing mayonnaise these properties control texture as well as flavor and are important to ensure optimum quality and improved yield. This requires close monitoring, and is best achieved with rapid, operator independent methods to increase testing efficiency and accuracy. Standard laboratory methods are time-consuming, more complex, and have per-measurement costs. LT-NIR provides a faster and simpler method for measuring these critical properties. This study reports on the use of LT-near infra-red (LT-NIR) analysis to monitor these properties in mayonnaise.”
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Online Measurement of Vegetable Oils – Request Additional Information

“The market for Vegetable Oils is continuously growing with both increased worldwide demand and additional uses. Oils from soy, palm, rapeseed, olives and several other sources find usage not only in cooking, but also in consumer products (such as soaps and cosmetics) and, more recently, as feedstocks for biodiesel. These oils are composed of Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats, with the exact composition varying based on the oil source used. Knowing the fat composition is essential to determining oil characteristics and chemical behavior (for example oils with a high degree of unsaturated fats are susceptible to oxidative deterioration.) LT-NIR analysis can provide fast, accurate determination of fat contents in laboratories or online for material identification, process control, blending or end product analysis. In this study, online analysis of fat composition was implemented in a large-scale facility.”
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Acid and Alcohol in Vinegar – Request Additional Information

In this application the IsoChem analyzer is used to determine the acid and alcohol concentration in vinegar.  The measurement is made in the laboratory then moved to inline monitoring.  Real time monitoring allows for optimizing of process conditions for the fasted batch time and controlling quality parameters insuring healthy micro-organisms.  These benefits result in large cost savings and an increase in plant capacity.  Measurements take only seconds, are non-destructive, and have no per measurement costs.
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NIR Measurement of Dextrose Equivalent and Dissolved Solids in Corn Syrup – Request Additional Information

“Corn Syrups are widely used as a sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages. Two key parameters of interest in their quality are Dextrose Equivalent (DE) and Dissolved Solids (DS) In this study, the effectiveness of using NIR to measure these properties is illustrated. The results are positive, exhibiting strong correlations and low errors of prediction. LT-NIR analysis can be used online to control processes and operate more efficiently. It can also be used to monitor final product quality to ensure it conforms to specifications.”
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Measurement of Dextrose, Fructose and AO in HFCS product – Request Additional Information

“High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is an important ingredient widely used in as a sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages. HFCS is produced in two different grades: 42% and 55% fructose. In this study, the effectiveness of using NIR to measure syrup composition is illustrated through analysis of these two products. The results are positive, exhibiting strong correlations and low errors of prediction. LT-NIR analysis can be used online to control processes and operate more efficiently. It can also be used to monitor final product quality to ensure it conforms to specifications.”
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Measurement of Iodine Value in Edible Oils – Request Additional Information

“Iodine value is used to quantify the degree of unsaturation of Edible Oils, making it an important quality parameter. Traditionally, this is measured via titration, which is time consuming, operator dependent and has per-measurement costs. LT-NIR analysis can provide fast, accurate determination of edible oil quality parameters in laboratories or online for material identification, process control, blending or end product analysis. In this study, LT-NIR benchtop analysis proves to be an effective measurement tool for iodine value.”
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Online Measurement of Alcohol, Gravity and Calories in Beer Production – Request Additional Information

“Beer standardization, blending a beer to precise gravity and alcohol requirements is critical to consistent product quality. In this study, samples for 5 different kinds of beer were analyzed online for a major beer producer. Models for Alcohol, Original Gravity and Calories were developed using the Verum Analytics Complete Beer Analysis (CBA) System. These models were used for continuous monitoring and control of blending in real time. The Analyzer allows for quantitative analysis of these key quality parameters and process control in real time using non-invasive, non-destructive Near Infrared technology.”
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Measurement of Brix and Acid in Juice Production – Request Additional Information

“In the production of beverage products brix and acid levels play key roles in product quality and flavor. Producers of juices, syrups, carbonated beverages, wine and honey need to pay attention to these concentrations. The Verum Analytics IsoPharm allows both quantitative and discriminate analysis of these key parameters using non-invasive, non-destructive Near Infrared technology. This technology can be implemented both in quality laboratories and directly online, providing high speed measurements of process parameters. In this study, brix and acid levels are measured online, in process with LT-NIR.”
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Tea Formulation Analysis – Request Additional Information

“The blending of tea products involves a stringent quality testing process requiring the tea to be taste tested against standards. This process is time consuming and can be very operator dependent. In addition, the capability of the tester can be compromised by excessive tasting or tasting of certain harsh flavors. The Verum Analytics’ Tea Formulation Analyzer provides a very fast and repeatable method for testing of tea quality. Since the test is non-destructive the same sample that is tested can be stored, and since no sample preparation is required the measure is very easy and fast.”
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Determination of Total Ginsenosides in American Ginseng by LT-NIR – Request Additional Information

“American ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) is one of the top five medicinal herb sellers in North America, with total market of around one hundred million dollars per year. The main active ingredients of American ginseng are ginsenosides, and their concentration in different samples of roots and extracts can vary. Verum Analytics’ PhytoScan spectrophotometer allows both quantitative determination of total ginsenoside concentration and qualitative analysis of different types of ginseng.”
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Measurement of Fragrance Chemicals – Request Additional Information

“The fragrance industry utilizes thousands of chemicals to create their many products. In order to ensure high quality, formulations should be consistent which requires total lifecycle monitoring, from raw material receipt through processing and mixing. This Study shows the feasibility of monitoring constituents of fragrances in process streams, distillation columns, formulation vessels or final products. The studies are based on samples scanned in process. The GC values were correlated to and used to model various properties in a number of product components.The measurement of Fragrance components shows many strong applications with correlations that are very reliable. This measurement is ideally suited for online integration where it can provide process control information greatly reducing over processing and out of specification production.”
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Online Monitoring of Milk Fat, Solids and Protein – Request Additional Information

“In-process monitoring of Fat, Protein and Solids is a valuable tool for controlling high value creams in blending as well as ensuring a consistent product formulation. In this study, Verum Analytics measured several milk samples online for the determination of these properties. The results were quite positive and can provide a great deal of benefit to dairy producers.”
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